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Types of Stem Cells

Adult Adipose Tissue Stem Cells

Adult Stromal Cells Derived from Human Adipose Tissue for Regenerative Medicine

Adipose tissue is a highly complex tissue which consists of mature adipocytes, preadipocytes, fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, resident monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes. The stromal-vascular cell fraction (SVF) of the adipose tissue is progressively coming into spotlight of stem cell research as these tissue’s chambers provides a rich source of pluripotent adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. 

Adipose tissues like bone marrow are procured from the embryonic mesenchyme which contains a stroma that can be easily cut off. Preliminary studies have lately identified a putative stem cell population within the adipose stromal chamber. This kind of cell population are termed as processed lipoaspirate cells which can be isolated from human lipoaspirates also cell population like mesenchymal stem cells segregate osteogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. Similarly, processed lipoaspirate cells and clones are characterized into putative neurogenic cells.

Adipose tissue extracted from the mesodermal layer of the embryo, develops both pre- and postnatally.  Infinitesimally, the earliest proof of adipocytes in humans shows up during the second trimester. Moreover in porcine embryos, monoclonal antibodies have diagnosed preadipocytes between days 50 to 70 of incubation. This coexists with the appearance of fibroblastic cells containing an abundant endoplasmic reticulum, a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio,  perinuclear localization of mitochondria, and the presence of lipid vacuoles. As the growth progresses, the adipocytes display multilocular or unilocular lipid accumulations. The diminutive location of the adipogenic progenitor cells continue to exist as debatable, as demonstrated by the multiple names employed to these cells throughout.  It still remains outstanding to prove whether the root of the cells correlates with the endothelial, pericyte, or stromal compartments. 

Definitely,  preadipocytes and endothelial cells share mainstream surface antigens, consistent with a common origin.

Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells can easily be secluded from human adipose tissue as they have the potential to determine bone, cartilage, tendons, skeletal muscle and fat cells when grown under lineage-specific conditions. Tissue engineering of these mesenchymal organs is of major appeal in human diseases, such as inherited, traumatic, or degenerative bone, joint and soft tissue defects (skeletal regeneration and cartilage repair). Treatments like Plastic tissue reconstruction after tumor surgery for breast cancer and other malignancies and reconstruction of muscle and adipose tissue defects after burn injury do represent additional needs for cell-based therapies. In addition, adipose tissue-derived stromal cells were revealed to have the potential for endothelial and macrophage differentiation. Besides, an initial effort has been made for distinction of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells across the germ leaf-specific tissues into non mesenchymal tissues (“cross-differentiation”) such as neurons or endocrine pancreatic cells.